The United States government has an executive branch, a judicial branch, and a legislative branch. The leaders of the executive branch are the President and Vice President. The executive branch makes sure that our laws are followed. Led by then Supreme Court, the Judaical branch keeps an eye on our laws. The legislative branch which makes laws, is the Congress.
The two parts of Congress are the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. There are two U.S. Senators for each state and "at least one U.S Representative; the more residents a state has, the more U.S. Representatives it is allowed." Usually laws start as bills, and bills start with ideas. It doesn't matter who has the idea as long as its a good one!
Then the idea goes to Congress, and members of Congress think about the idea and if they like it they will make a bill.
"Once the bill is written, it is placed in the hopper, and introduced to the rest of the Members of the U.S. House of Representatives." The Representatives talk about it then if they like it they put it out to the public.
And now John Boehner is becoming speaker of the house. Boehner plans to lower taxes and critics say that this will most probably lead to bad health care systems.